CSSGeneral Science & Ability

5. (A) What is a mirage? Describe in detail the creation of mirage. (B) Differentiate between the occurrence of Lunar and Solar Eclipse.? (C) Briefly explain what effects are produced due to Rotation & Revolution of Earth? (D) Most of the household appliances utilize ‘DC’ then why we generate ‘AC’ at power stations?

  1. A) A mirage is an optical phenomenon that occurs when light rays bend as they pass through different layers of air with varying temperatures, resulting in the appearance of distant objects, usually water, as if they are shimmering or reflecting in the distance. Mirage typically occurs on hot days when the air near the ground is much hotter than the air above it. As the light from an object travels towards the observer, it passes through different air layers that have different temperatures and densities. These variations in temperature and density cause the light rays to bend, creating an illusion of water or a shiny surface.
  2. B) Lunar and solar eclipses occur when the Earth, Sun, and Moon are aligned in a specific way. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon, causing the Earth’s shadow to fall on the Moon, making it appear red or brownish. On the other hand, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, casting a shadow on the Earth and blocking the Sun’s light from reaching the Earth. Solar eclipses can be total or partial, depending on the alignment of the Sun, Moon, and Earth.
  3. C) The rotation of the Earth causes day and night cycles, while its revolution around the Sun causes the change in seasons. The rotation of the Earth also affects the Coriolis Effect, which causes the deflection of winds and ocean currents. The revolution of the Earth around the Sun creates the variation of the distance between the Earth and the Sun, which results in the changing seasons.
  4. D) Most household appliances utilize DC, such as batteries or electronic devices that use DC power supplies. However, AC (alternating current) is generated at power stations because it is more efficient and cost-effective to transmit over long distances. AC voltage can be stepped up or down using transformers, allowing for efficient power transmission over long distances with minimal energy loss. Additionally, AC can be generated using generators that utilize rotational energy, making it easier to generate in large quantities.

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