Q. No. 8. Write short note on any TWO of the followings (i) Perfect and Pure competition. (2018-I)

(i) Perfect and Pure competition: Short Note on Perfect and Pure Competition: Perfect and pure competition are two distinct concepts…

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Q. No. 6. (a) Discuss major cannons of taxation and their relevance to tax system in Pakistan. (2018-I)

Major Canons of Taxation and Their Relevance to the Tax System in Pakistan Taxation is a crucial tool for governments…

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Q. No. 5. (a) Explain Arc and Cross elasticities and analyze their role in decision making by the consumers. (2018-I)

Understanding Arc and Cross Elasticities and Their Role in Consumer Decision Making Elasticity measures the responsiveness of one variable to…

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Q. No. 4. (a) Analyze three different shapes of Aggregate Supply Curve (Constant, positively sloped and vertical). (2018-I)

Analyzing Three Shapes of Aggregate Supply Curve: The aggregate supply curve represents the relationship between the total quantity of goods…

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Q. No. 3. (a) How the concepts of notional aggregate demand (Keynesian) and real aggregate demand (neo-classical), (2018-I)

Demand (Neoclassical) Lead to Economic Fluctuations: Economic fluctuations, characterized by periods of expansion (booms) and contraction (recessions), are influenced by…

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Q. No. 2. (a) State the bases of IS-LM framework (equations &establish equilibrium) and comment whether it is a short run or long run analysis. (2018-I)

IS Curve and Equilibrium: The IS (Investment-Saving) curve is a foundational concept in macroeconomics that helps economists and policymakers understand…

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Q. No. 8. Write short notes on TWO of the following: (a) Export-led Growth Strategy. (2017-II)

(a) Export-led Growth Strategy: Export-led growth strategy is an economic development approach where a country focuses on increasing its exports…

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Q. No. 7. Delineate the difference among privatization, deregulation and decentralization. (2017-II)

Privatization: Privatization is the process of transferring ownership, control, and management of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) or public assets to the…

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Q. No. 6. Highlight and explain changes in direction of trade in recent years. Also explain trends in exports and imports of Pakistan.

Changes in Direction of Trade: Changes in the direction of trade refer to shifts in the patterns and destinations of…

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Q. No. 5. Explain the major monetary and fiscal measures taken in Pakistan for industrial development for the last 20 years. (2017-II)

Monetary Policy Measures for Industrial Development: Monetary policy measures play a significant role in influencing industrial development by affecting the…

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