i. The Contents of the Last Sermon of Hajj
The Last Sermon of Hajj is a famous speech given by the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) during his last pilgrimage to Mecca in the year 632 CE. It is a comprehensive message of guidance for all Muslims and contains some of the most important teachings of Islam. The main topics covered in the Last Sermon include the importance of unity and brotherhood among Muslims, the importance of upholding justice and equality, the sanctity of human life and property, the necessity of good character, and the importance of maintaining strong family ties. The Last Sermon also emphasizes the importance of following the Qur’an and the Sunnah (the traditions and practices of the Prophet), and warns against committing sins and following false leaders.
ii. Development of Arabic Literature
Arabic literature is one of the oldest and richest literary traditions in the world, with a history that stretches back more than 1,500 years. It includes poetry, prose, and drama, and has been influenced by a wide range of cultures and civilizations. The development of Arabic literature can be traced back to the pre-Islamic period, when poets would recite their works at gatherings and competitions. With the advent of Islam, Arabic literature began to focus more on religious and moral themes, and the Qur’an became a major source of literary inspiration. During the Islamic Golden Age (from the 8th to the 13th centuries), Arabic literature flourished, with poets and writers producing works of great beauty and complexity. Some of the most famous works of Arabic literature from this period include the poetry of Rumi and Hafiz, the Thousand and One Nights, and the works of Ibn Arabi and Al-Ghazali.
iii. Migration to Ethiopia
The Migration to Ethiopia, also known as the First Hijra, was a significant event in the early history of Islam. It took place in the year 615 CE, when a group of early Muslims, including the Prophet Muhammad’s (SAW) daughter, son-in-law, and other close companions, fled to Ethiopia to escape persecution in Mecca. The Ethiopian king, known as Negus, was known for his tolerance and kindness, and he welcomed the Muslim refugees with open arms. This migration is significant for several reasons. Firstly, it provided a safe haven for the early Muslims and allowed them to practice their religion freely. Secondly, it demonstrated the importance of seeking refuge in a place where religious freedom and tolerance are respected. Finally, it set an important precedent for how Muslims should respond to persecution and oppression, by seeking refuge in a safe and welcoming place.