CSSPakistan Affairs

Q.7 Write note on the Afghan War since 1979 and its impacts on Pakistan. How far the emergence of the “Non-State Actors” and Non-Traditional Security Threats in Pakistan can be attributed to the decades-long warfare in Afghanistan? 2016

The Afghan War since 1979 has had a profound impact on Pakistan, both in terms of its security situation and its domestic politics. The war began with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, which led to a decade-long conflict between the Soviet-backed government and various mujahideen groups. Pakistan, along with the United States and other Western powers, provided support to the mujahideen groups, which eventually forced the Soviet Union to withdraw from Afghanistan in 1989.

After the Soviet withdrawal, Afghanistan descended into civil war, with various factions vying for power. This led to the rise of the Taliban, which eventually took control of most of the country in the mid-1990s. Pakistan provided support to the Taliban during this period, seeing them as a strategic ally in Afghanistan.

After the 9/11 attacks in the United States, the US-led coalition invaded Afghanistan and overthrew the Taliban government. Pakistan initially supported the US-led coalition, but this led to a backlash from domestic Islamist groups, who saw the government’s cooperation with the US as a betrayal. Pakistan has since faced a growing threat from terrorism and insurgency, with non-state actors such as the Taliban and various militant groups operating in the country.

The emergence of non-state actors and non-traditional security threats in Pakistan can be attributed to the decades-long warfare in Afghanistan. The conflict has led to the growth of militant groups in the region, many of which have ties to al-Qaeda and other transnational terrorist organizations. These groups have used Pakistan as a base for their operations, and have carried out attacks on both military and civilian targets in the country.

In addition to the security threat, the conflict in Afghanistan has also had economic and social impacts on Pakistan. The influx of Afghan refugees into Pakistan has placed a strain on the country’s resources, and the ongoing conflict has disrupted trade and economic activity in the region.

Overall, the Afghan War since 1979 has had a significant impact on Pakistan, contributing to the emergence of non-state actors and non-traditional security threats in the country. Addressing these challenges will require a comprehensive and coordinated approach, both domestically and regionally, to address the root causes of the conflict and promote stability and development in the region.

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