State sovereignty in Islam refers to the concept that the ultimate authority in a Muslim state lies with Allah (God) and that the state is responsible for implementing Islamic law (Sharia) and preserving the welfare of its citizens. The idea of state sovereignty in Islam is rooted in the belief that Allah’s law is supreme and must be the basis for all legislation and policies in a Muslim state.
Under Islamic law, the head of state is known as the caliph, and there are specific qualifications that a person must meet in order to become a caliph. These qualifications include:
- Muslim: The caliph must be a Muslim.
- Free: The caliph must be a free person and not a slave.
- Male: The caliph must be a male.
- Adult: The caliph must have reached the age of majority.
- Just: The caliph must be just and impartial in their decision-making.
- Intelligent: The caliph must have sufficient intelligence to make sound decisions.
- Of good character: The caliph must have a good reputation and be of good character.
- Of Arab descent: The caliph was traditionally expected to be of Arab descent, although this requirement has been relaxed in some cases.
In summary, the idea of state sovereignty in Islam is that the ultimate authority lies with Allah and that the head of state must be qualified to lead the state in accordance with Islamic law.