R. 1973 Constitution, Constitutional amendments and important Constitutional cases.

The Constitution of Pakistan was first adopted in 1956 and has undergone several amendments over the years. The current Constitution, adopted in 1973, outlines the framework for the country’s political and legal systems. Here are some of the important constitutional amendments and cases in Pakistan:

Constitutional Amendments:

  1. Eighth Amendment (1985): This amendment granted extensive powers to the president, including the ability to dissolve the National Assembly and make appointments to key positions in the government.
  2. Seventeenth Amendment (2003): This amendment was introduced by President Pervez Musharraf and gave the president the power to dismiss the prime minister and dissolve the National Assembly.
  3. Eighteenth Amendment (2010): This amendment reversed many of the changes made by the previous amendments, including reducing the powers of the president and strengthening the role of parliament.

Important Constitutional Cases:

  1. Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan v. Federation of Pakistan (1954): This case challenged the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly by Governor General Ghulam Muhammad and established the principle of judicial review in Pakistan.
  2. Begum Nusrat Bhutto v. Chief of Army Staff (1977): This case challenged the martial law imposed by General Zia-ul-Haq and affirmed the supremacy of the Constitution over the military.
  3. Zafar Ali Shah v. Pervez Musharraf (2000): This case challenged the legality of General Musharraf’s coup and affirmed the independence of the judiciary in Pakistan.
  4. Panama Papers case (2017): This case involved allegations of corruption against then-Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and his family and resulted in his disqualification from holding public office.

In conclusion, the Constitution of Pakistan has undergone significant changes over the years through amendments and legal challenges. Important constitutional cases have helped to shape the political and legal landscape of the country, and continue to play an important role in upholding the rule of law in Pakistan.

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