CSSGeneral Science & Ability

1. What were the main objectives of Clean Development Mechanism? Also explain the reasons for the criticism on Koyoto Protocol by the developed countries. (b) Differentiate between Sanitary and Industrial Landfills, also describe the land selection criteria for Landfills.

a) The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the mechanisms established under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Its main objectives are:

  1. To help industrialized countries achieve their emission reduction targets by allowing them to earn emission reduction credits through sustainable development projects in developing countries.
  2. To promote sustainable development in developing countries by encouraging investment in clean energy and technology transfer.
  3. To create a market for carbon credits and stimulate investment in low-carbon technologies.

However, the Kyoto Protocol has been criticized by developed countries for various reasons, including:

  1. The absence of legally binding emissions reduction targets for developing countries, which are major emitters of greenhouse gases.
  2. The high cost of implementing emission reduction measures, which may affect economic growth.
  3. The lack of participation by major emitters such as the United States, which did not ratify the Protocol.

b) Sanitary landfills and industrial landfills are two types of landfills used for waste disposal. The main difference between them is the type of waste they accept. Sanitary landfills are designed for the disposal of municipal solid waste, while industrial landfills are designed for the disposal of hazardous waste generated by industries.

The selection criteria for landfills include:

  1. Location: Landfills should be located away from residential areas, surface water, and groundwater resources to prevent contamination.
  2. Geology: The site should have suitable soil conditions and bedrock depth to prevent leachate migration.
  3. Hydrology: The site should have low groundwater levels and be located in an area with low rainfall.
  4. Accessibility: The site should be accessible by road and should be close to the waste source to reduce transportation costs.
  5. Land use: The site should be located in an area where there are no restrictions on land use and should be large enough to accommodate the landfill and its associated facilities.

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