CSSPolitical Science

No. 4. Discuss the features of Turkish model of democracy keeping the distinguished position (2016-II)

of the armed forces in the Turkish politics

1.Secularism and Modernization

Secularism and modernization are fundamental features of the Turkish model of democracy, representing core principles established by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk during the early 20th century. Understanding these concepts is essential to grasp the foundation of Turkey’s political system and its approach to governance.


  • Atatürk introduced secularism as a guiding principle in Turkish politics, aiming to separate religion from the state and public institutions. This concept emphasized the neutrality of the government in religious matters and the freedom of individuals to practice their faith without state interference.
  • The implementation of secularism in Turkey involved a series of reforms, including the abolition of the Caliphate, the closure of religious institutions, and the adoption of a civil legal code based on Western principles. These reforms aimed to modernize Turkish society and promote a secular identity rooted in civic nationalism rather than religious affiliation.
  • Secularism in Turkey is enshrined in the country’s constitution, which guarantees the freedom of religion and conscience while mandating state neutrality in religious affairs. However, the interpretation and implementation of secularism have been subject to debate and controversy over the years, particularly concerning the role of Islam in public life and the extent of state intervention in religious matters.


  • Alongside secularism, modernization was a key component of Atatürk’s vision for Turkey, emphasizing the adoption of Western norms, values, and institutions to transform Turkish society and economy.
  • Modernization efforts encompassed a wide range of reforms, including the introduction of secular education, the establishment of a civil legal system, the adoption of Western attire and customs, and the promotion of scientific and technological advancements. These reforms aimed to break from traditional Ottoman institutions and practices perceived as hindrances to progress and development.
  • Modernization in Turkey also involved efforts to centralize state authority, consolidate national identity, and promote economic development through industrialization and infrastructure projects. These initiatives laid the foundation for Turkey’s transition from a predominantly agrarian society to a modern, industrialized nation-state.

Overall, secularism and modernization are integral components of the Turkish model of democracy, reflecting a commitment to political, social, and economic reform in pursuit of a modern, secular, and democratic society. While these principles have faced challenges and controversies over the years, they continue to shape Turkey’s identity and political landscape, influencing debates over governance, religion, and national identity.

2.Role of the Armed Forces

Secularism and modernization are two foundational principles of the Turkish model of democracy, established by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in the early 20th century.

Secularism in Turkey refers to the strict separation of religion and state, aimed at removing the influence of religion from public affairs and promoting a modern, secular society. Atatürk implemented a series of reforms to secularize Turkish society, including the abolition of the Ottoman caliphate, the closure of religious institutions, and the introduction of secular laws and education systems. These reforms were intended to break the traditional hold of religious institutions on governance and create a more modern and progressive state.

Modernization, on the other hand, entails the adoption of Western political, social, and economic institutions to transform Turkey into a modern nation-state. Atatürk’s modernization reforms included the adoption of a Latin alphabet, the introduction of civil law based on European models, and the promotion of women’s rights and education. These reforms aimed to align Turkey with the values and norms of contemporary Western democracies, fostering economic development, social progress, and political stability.

The role of the armed forces in the Turkish model of democracy has been distinctive and historically significant. Since the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, the military has viewed itself as the guardian of Atatürk’s secular and democratic principles. It has intervened in politics on several occasions, staging coups d’état or issuing military memoranda to protect the secular order and national stability.

The military’s interventions in Turkish politics have often been justified by its perception of itself as the defender of Kemalist principles against perceived threats from religious or anti-secular forces. However, these interventions have also been criticized for undermining democratic governance and civilian rule.

In recent years, Turkey has experienced a gradual transition towards civilian oversight and democratic consolidation, with successive governments asserting greater control over the military and reducing its role in politics. Nonetheless, the legacy of military interventionism continues to shape Turkish politics, with periodic tensions between civilian authorities and the military, reflecting ongoing debates over the balance between secularism, democracy, and national security.

3.Military Intervention and Political Influence

Military intervention and political influence refer to the historical role of the Turkish armed forces in shaping the country’s political landscape through direct intervention in governance and policymaking processes. In the context of the Turkish model of democracy, military intervention has been a recurring phenomenon, with the armed forces asserting their influence to safeguard secularism, national unity, and stability.


Military intervention in Turkish politics has taken various forms, including coups d’état, military memoranda, and indirect pressure tactics. These interventions have typically occurred when the military perceived a threat to the secular and democratic principles established by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey. The military justified its interventions as necessary steps to maintain national unity, protect secularism, and uphold the constitution.

Throughout Turkish history, the armed forces have intervened in politics to remove governments perceived as straying from Kemalist principles, threatening national security, or promoting religious conservatism. Major interventions include the coups d’état in 1960, 1971, and 1980, as well as the “postmodern coup” of 1997, characterized by the issuance of a military memorandum that led to the resignation of the Islamist-led government.

Military intervention has had a significant impact on Turkey’s political development, shaping its institutions, policies, and governance structures. The military’s involvement in politics has often resulted in the suspension of democratic processes, restrictions on civil liberties, and the imposition of martial law. However, it has also been perceived by some as a necessary means to maintain stability and protect the secular state against perceived threats.

In recent years, Turkey has experienced a gradual transition towards civilian rule and democratic consolidation, with successive governments asserting greater control over the military and reducing its role in politics. However, the legacy of military interventionism continues to influence Turkish politics, contributing to periodic tensions between civilian authorities and the military, and shaping debates over the balance between secularism, democracy, and national security.

4.National Security Council (NSC)

The National Security Council (NSC) in Turkey is a key institution that plays a significant role in the country’s governance, particularly in matters related to national security, defense, and foreign policy. Established in 1961, the NSC serves as a forum where civilian and military leaders come together to discuss and coordinate policies concerning Turkey’s security and defense interests.

  1. Composition:
    • The NSC is chaired by the President of Turkey and includes the Prime Minister, Chief of the General Staff (head of the Turkish Armed Forces), and key ministers responsible for defense, interior, foreign affairs, and other relevant portfolios. Additionally, the Commander of the Gendarmerie and the Director of the National Intelligence Organization (MIT) participate as non-voting members.
  2. Functions and Responsibilities:
    • The primary function of the NSC is to advise the President and the government on matters pertaining to national security and defense. It formulates policies, strategies, and action plans to address various threats and challenges facing the country, including terrorism, regional conflicts, and geopolitical developments.
    • The NSC conducts regular meetings to assess security threats, review defense capabilities, and coordinate responses to emerging crises. It serves as a platform for high-level discussions and decision-making on critical issues affecting Turkey’s security interests.
    • The NSC also oversees the implementation of national security policies and monitors developments in domestic and international security environments. It plays a crucial role in coordinating civil-military relations and ensuring coherence and unity of purpose in Turkey’s security and defense policies.
  3. Decision-Making Process:
    • While the NSC provides recommendations and advice to the President and the government, its decisions do not have binding legal authority. However, its recommendations carry significant weight and influence government policies and actions.
    • The NSC operates on a consensus-based decision-making process, with input from civilian and military leaders. Decisions are reached through discussions and deliberations among NSC members, reflecting a balance of perspectives and interests.
  4. Role in Democratic Governance:
    • The NSC’s role in Turkish democracy has been a subject of debate, particularly due to its historical involvement in military interventions and its perceived influence on civilian authorities. Critics argue that the NSC has sometimes encroached upon democratic institutions and undermined civilian control over the military.
    • In recent years, efforts have been made to reform and democratize the NSC, reducing its role in political decision-making and enhancing civilian oversight. However, it remains an important institution for national security policy coordination in Turkey.

Overall, the National Security Council in Turkey serves as a vital mechanism for coordinating security and defense policies, fostering civil-military cooperation, and addressing strategic challenges facing the country. While its role in Turkish democracy continues to evolve, the NSC remains an influential institution in shaping Turkey’s security posture and foreign policy objectives.

5.Civilian Oversight and Democratic Consolidation

Civilian oversight and democratic consolidation refer to the process through which civilian authorities assert control over the military and other security institutions, ensuring that they operate within the bounds of democratic governance and respect for human rights. In the context of Turkey, civilian oversight and democratic consolidation have been significant themes in the country’s political development, particularly in relation to the role of the military and its historical interventions in politics.

  1. Transition from Military to Civilian Rule:
    • Turkey has experienced a gradual transition from military-dominated governance to civilian rule over the past few decades. Historically, the Turkish armed forces played a prominent role in politics, often intervening to safeguard secularism and national stability.
    • Efforts to consolidate democracy have involved reducing the military’s influence in politics, promoting civilian control over security institutions, and strengthening democratic institutions and processes.
  2. Reforms and Legislative Changes:
    • Democratic consolidation in Turkey has been accompanied by legislative reforms aimed at enhancing civilian oversight of the military and security agencies. These reforms have included amendments to the constitution, laws governing the armed forces, and regulations governing the National Security Council.
    • Reforms have sought to establish clear lines of authority and accountability, limit the military’s involvement in politics, and promote transparency and accountability in defense and security affairs.
  3. Strengthening Civilian Institutions:
    • Democratic consolidation involves strengthening civilian institutions, such as the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government, to ensure their autonomy and effectiveness. This includes empowering elected officials, enhancing parliamentary oversight, and promoting the rule of law.
    • Civilian institutions play a crucial role in providing checks and balances on the military, ensuring that it operates within constitutional limits and respects democratic norms.
  4. Promotion of Human Rights and Civil Liberties:
    • Central to democratic consolidation is the protection of human rights and civil liberties, including freedom of expression, assembly, and association. Efforts to consolidate democracy in Turkey have involved addressing human rights abuses, promoting judicial independence, and enhancing protections for minority rights.
    • Upholding human rights and civil liberties helps to build public trust in democratic institutions and fosters a culture of democratic citizenship.
  5. Challenges and Ongoing Reforms:
    • Despite progress in democratic consolidation, Turkey continues to face challenges related to democratic governance, including concerns about the erosion of democratic norms, restrictions on freedom of speech, and polarization within society.
    • Ongoing reforms are needed to address these challenges and strengthen democratic institutions, including efforts to enhance transparency, accountability, and participation in governance processes.

Overall, civilian oversight and democratic consolidation are essential elements of Turkey’s political evolution, shaping the relationship between the military and civilian authorities and promoting democratic governance and respect for human rights. Continued efforts to strengthen democratic institutions, uphold the rule of law, and promote inclusive governance will be essential for consolidating democracy in Turkey.

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