The Federal Structure of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, after the 18th Amendment, is characterized by a strong federal government and provincial autonomy. The 18th Amendment to the Constitution was passed in 2010 and brought significant changes to the distribution of powers between the federal and provincial governments. The amendment transferred several subjects from the federal government to the provinces, including education, health, and social welfare.
The 18th Amendment also abolished the concurrent list, which had previously allowed both federal and provincial governments to legislate on certain subjects. This change further strengthened provincial autonomy by limiting federal government involvement in areas that were previously shared. The amendment also established a new National Finance Commission to distribute financial resources between the federal and provincial governments.
Despite the benefits of the 18th Amendment, criticism has arisen recently regarding its implementation. Some critics argue that the transfer of powers to the provinces has not been accompanied by the necessary financial resources and administrative capacity. As a result, provincial governments have struggled to effectively manage the devolved subjects, leading to inadequate services in some areas.
There have also been concerns that the amendment has led to the fragmentation of national institutions, with each province developing its own policies and systems. This has resulted in disparities in standards across the country and has made it difficult to implement consistent policies at the national level.
In conclusion, the Federal Structure of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan after the 18th Amendment has brought significant changes to the distribution of powers between the federal and provincial governments. While the amendment has strengthened provincial autonomy, criticism has arisen regarding its implementation, particularly with regard to the transfer of resources and administrative capacity.