The political system under the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and the pious caliphs was based on the principles of Islam and was different from the Western political system in several ways.
Firstly, Islam recognizes the sovereignty of Allah and considers the Prophet (PBUH) as the last and final messenger of God. Therefore, the political system was based on the principles and teachings of Islam and was not founded on the whims and desires of individuals.
Secondly, the Islamic political system is based on the principle of Shura, which means consultation. The Prophet (PBUH) and the pious caliphs consulted with their companions and the wider Muslim community on matters of public concern. This ensured that decisions were made with the consent and input of the people, and that the community was involved in the process of governance.
Thirdly, the Islamic political system recognizes the importance of justice and accountability. The Prophet (PBUH) and the pious caliphs were known for their commitment to justice and fairness, and they were accountable to the people they governed. They did not enjoy immunity from criticism or accountability, and they were expected to lead by example and set high moral standards.
Fourthly, the Islamic political system does not separate religion from politics. Islam is a complete way of life that provides guidance on all aspects of human affairs, including politics. Therefore, the Prophet (PBUH) and the pious caliphs governed according to the principles of Islam and sought to establish a just and equitable society based on Islamic values.
Finally, the Islamic political system recognizes the importance of human rights and freedoms. Islam teaches that all human beings are equal and that they have certain inalienable rights, including the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The Prophet (PBUH) and the pious caliphs recognized and protected these rights, and they were known for their compassion and concern for the vulnerable and marginalized members of society.
In contrast, the Western political system is founded on the principles of democracy, individualism, and secularism. While these principles have their strengths, they do not necessarily prioritize justice, accountability, and human rights in the same way that the Islamic political system does.
In conclusion, the Islamic political system under the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the pious caliphs was based on the principles of Islam and was characterized by consultation, justice, accountability, and human rights. It was different from the Western political system in several ways, and its emphasis on Islamic values and principles continues to influence Muslim governance and politics to this day.