(a) Architecture: Architecture is one of the most significant and celebrated art forms in Islamic culture. Islamic architecture is characterized by its ornate and intricate designs, which often incorporate complex geometric patterns and calligraphy. The most recognizable example of Islamic architecture is the mosque, which serves as a place of worship and community gathering. Mosques feature a central prayer hall and a large dome, which symbolizes the unity of God. Other notable features of Islamic architecture include the use of minarets, which are tall towers used to call Muslims to prayer, and the courtyard, which is often used for community events and social gatherings.
(b) Calligraphy: Calligraphy is a highly revered and widely practiced art form in Islamic culture. The Arabic language is considered sacred in Islam, and calligraphy is seen as a way of preserving and honoring the written word. Islamic calligraphy is characterized by its flowing, decorative style, which is often used to adorn religious texts, manuscripts, and other works of art. Calligraphers use a range of tools, including pens, brushes, and reed pens, to create intricate designs that often incorporate complex geometric patterns and floral motifs. Islamic calligraphy has played a significant role in the development of Islamic art and culture, and is considered to be a reflection of the beauty and sophistication of Islamic civilization.