Umar bin Abdul Aziz was the eighth Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720 CE. He is considered to be one of the most just and pious rulers in Islamic history. During his reign, he implemented various fiscal policies that helped to improve the economic conditions of the empire. Some of the key fiscal policies adopted by Umar bin Abdul Aziz are as follows:
- : Umar bin Abdul Aziz abolished the unpopular taxes that were imposed by his predecessors, such as the jizya (tax on non-Muslims) and kharaj (land tax). Instead, he introduced a new tax system that was based on the principles of justice and fairness. He reduced the tax rates for both Muslims and non-Muslims and ensured that the taxes were collected efficiently and transparently.
- : Umar bin Abdul Aziz reformed the system of zakat collection and distribution. He established a centralized system for the collection of zakat and ensured that it was distributed to the deserving people. He also implemented measures to prevent fraud and abuse in the collection and distribution of zakat.
- : Umar bin Abdul Aziz reduced the expenses of the government by cutting down on unnecessary expenditures. He also implemented measures to prevent corruption and wastage of public resources.
- : Umar bin Abdul Aziz encouraged trade and agriculture by providing incentives and subsidies to traders and farmers. He also built new roads and canals to improve the infrastructure and facilitate trade.
- : Umar bin Abdul Aziz was committed to economic and social justice. He ensured that the wealth was distributed equitably among all the citizens of the empire, regardless of their religion or social status. He also established institutions such as hospitals and orphanages to provide for the welfare of the poor and needy.
In conclusion, Umar bin Abdul Aziz implemented a series of fiscal policies that helped to improve the economic conditions of the Umayyad empire. He reformed the tax system, established a fair system for zakat collection and distribution, reduced government expenditures, encouraged trade and agriculture, and promoted economic and social justice. His policies contributed to the stability and prosperity of the empire and set an example for future Islamic rulers to follow.