Under the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, the federal system established a division of powers between the central government and the provinces. The Constitution sought to create a balance of power between the central government and the provinces by defining the roles and responsibilities of each.
The Constitution recognized the provinces as autonomous units, with their own legislative and executive powers. The provinces were given the power to make laws on subjects such as education, health, and agriculture, which were considered provincial matters. The central government, on the other hand, was given the power to make laws on subjects such as defense, foreign affairs, and currency.
The Constitution also established the Council of Common Interests (CCI), a forum where the federal government and the provincial governments can discuss and resolve any disputes or issues that arise between them. The CCI is composed of the Prime Minister, the Chief Ministers of the provinces, and other members appointed by the President.
Additionally, the Constitution established the National Finance Commission (NFC), which is responsible for determining the distribution of financial resources between the federal government and the provinces. The NFC meets periodically to review the distribution formula and recommend changes, if necessary.
Overall, the 1973 Constitution aimed to create a balanced and cooperative relationship between the central government and the provinces, with a clear division of powers and mechanisms for resolving disputes. However, over the years, there have been challenges and tensions in center-province relations, with some provinces feeling that their interests and autonomy have been neglected by the federal government. To address these issues, there have been calls for a greater devolution of powers to the provinces, as well as more effective implementation of existing constitutional provisions related to center-province relations.