CSSPolitical Science

Q. No. 8. Write comprehensive notes on the following

(a). Foreign policy making process in Pakistan. (b). Global Civil Society

1.Executive Leadership and Decision-Making:

Role of the Prime Minister:

The Prime Minister of Pakistan holds significant authority in the foreign policy making process.

They provide strategic direction and guidance, setting the overall goals and priorities for Pakistan’s foreign relations.

The Prime Minister represents Pakistan on the international stage, engaging with other world leaders and participating in diplomatic summits and forums.

Role of the President:

While the President of Pakistan’s role in foreign policy is largely ceremonial, they may still influence decision-making through their position as the head of state.

The President may conduct diplomatic visits and meetings with foreign dignitaries to strengthen bilateral relations.

In certain cases, the President may play a role in appointing ambassadors and diplomatic envoys.

National Security Council (NSC):

The National Security Council, chaired by the Prime Minister, plays a crucial role in coordinating Pakistan’s national security and foreign policy objectives.

It brings together key stakeholders, including senior government officials, military leadership, and intelligence agencies, to discuss and strategize on matters of national security and foreign affairs.


The NSC advises the government on policy decisions related to defense, security, and foreign relations, providing a forum for comprehensive analysis and discussion.

Policy Formulation and Implementation:

Executive leadership oversees the formulation and implementation of foreign policy directives.

They receive input from various sources, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, intelligence agencies, and diplomatic missions abroad.

Once decisions are made, the executive branch is responsible for executing foreign policy initiatives through diplomatic channels, engaging with foreign governments, and representing Pakistan’s interests on the global stage.

Consultation and Decision-Making Process:

Executive leadership engages in consultation with relevant stakeholders, including government officials, diplomats, military leaders, and experts from academia and think tanks.

Decision-making involves a process of analysis, deliberation, and consensus-building among key decision-makers within the executive branch.

While the Prime Minister and President provide overall leadership, decisions may also be informed by input from other government agencies, advisors, and experts.

2.Institutional Framework:

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA):

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the primary government agency responsible for formulating and implementing Pakistan’s foreign policy.

It is headed by the Foreign Minister, who oversees the ministry’s functions and represents Pakistan in diplomatic engagements.

MOFA’s responsibilities include managing diplomatic relations with other countries, conducting negotiations on bilateral and multilateral agreements, and promoting Pakistan’s interests abroad.

Diplomatic Missions Abroad:

Pakistan maintains a network of diplomatic missions, including embassies, consulates, and high commissions, in countries around the world.

These missions serve as the frontline representation of Pakistan’s interests in foreign countries, facilitating diplomatic relations, providing consular services to Pakistani citizens, and promoting trade, investment, and cultural exchanges.

Interagency Coordination:

Foreign policy making in Pakistan involves coordination among various government agencies, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, defense establishment, intelligence agencies, and economic ministries.

Interagency coordination mechanisms, such as the National Security Council (NSC), facilitate collaboration and information sharing among different stakeholders to ensure coherence and consistency in foreign policy decision-making.

Parliamentary Oversight:

While the executive branch is primarily responsible for foreign policy formulation, Pakistan’s parliament provides oversight and approval for major foreign policy initiatives.

Parliamentary committees, such as the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, review and scrutinize foreign policy matters, hold hearings with government officials, and provide recommendations to the government on key policy issues.

Non-State Actors and Civil Society:

In addition to government institutions, non-state actors and civil society organizations also play a role in Pakistan’s foreign policy.

Think tanks, academic institutions, and advocacy groups contribute expertise and analysis on foreign policy issues, shaping public discourse and influencing policy debates.

Track II diplomacy, involving unofficial dialogues and exchanges between non-governmental actors from Pakistan and other countries, complements official diplomatic efforts and promotes people-to-people diplomacy.

International Organizations and Treaties:

Pakistan is a member of various international organizations, such as the United Nations, World Trade Organization, and South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), which influence its foreign policy priorities and commitments.

Participation in international treaties and agreements, including security alliances, trade agreements, and human rights conventions, also shapes Pakistan’s foreign policy objectives and obligations.

3.External Influences and Geopolitical Considerations:

Regional Dynamics:

Pakistan’s foreign policy is significantly influenced by its relations with neighboring countries, particularly India, Afghanistan, China, and Iran.

Tensions and conflicts in the region, such as the Kashmir dispute with India and the security situation in Afghanistan, shape Pakistan’s strategic calculations and foreign policy priorities.

Bilateral and regional alliances, such as the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), also impact Pakistan’s foreign relations and regional engagement.

Global Power Politics:

Pakistan’s foreign policy choices are influenced by the geopolitical dynamics of major powers, including the United States, China, Russia, and the European Union.

Strategic partnerships and alliances with major powers, such as the United States during the Cold War and China in recent years, have shaped Pakistan’s security and economic policies.

Balancing relations between competing powers and managing strategic alignments is a key consideration for Pakistan’s foreign policy.

Security Concerns:

Pakistan’s foreign policy is guided by its security imperatives, including threats from terrorism, insurgency, and cross-border militancy.

Relations with countries that have significant security implications for Pakistan, such as the United States, Afghanistan, and Saudi Arabia, are prioritized in the foreign policy agenda.

Cooperation with international partners on counterterrorism, intelligence-sharing, and border security is a key component of Pakistan’s foreign policy approach.

Economic Interests:

Economic considerations, including trade, investment, and development assistance, also influence Pakistan’s foreign policy decisions.

Engagement with countries and regions that offer economic opportunities, such as China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the Gulf states, is prioritized to promote economic growth and development.

Access to international markets, energy resources, and foreign investment are key drivers of Pakistan’s economic diplomacy and foreign relations.

Islamic Solidarity and Ideological Affinities:

As an Islamic state, Pakistan’s foreign policy is influenced by principles of Islamic solidarity and support for Muslim causes.

Pakistan’s advocacy for the rights of Muslims in conflict zones, such as Palestine and Kashmir, reflects its commitment to Islamic solidarity and support for self-determination.

Relations with other Muslim-majority countries and participation in Islamic organizations, such as the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), are guided by shared religious and ideological affinities.

4.Consultation and Stakeholder Engagement:

Interagency Coordination:

Pakistan’s foreign policy making process involves consultation and coordination among various government agencies, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, defense establishment, intelligence agencies, and economic ministries.

Regular meetings, briefings, and consultations are held among key stakeholders to discuss foreign policy priorities, strategic objectives, and emerging challenges.

Interagency coordination mechanisms, such as the National Security Council (NSC), provide a platform for senior officials from different agencies to exchange views, share information, and coordinate policy responses.

Diplomatic Corps and Foreign Missions:

Pakistan’s diplomatic corps and foreign missions abroad play a crucial role in stakeholder engagement and consultation.

Ambassadors, diplomats, and consular officials represent Pakistan’s interests in foreign countries and engage with local stakeholders, including government officials, business leaders, civil society organizations, and academic institutions.

They gather information, provide analysis, and convey feedback to policymakers in Islamabad, informing foreign policy decisions and strategies.

Civil Society and Think Tanks:

Civil society organizations, think tanks, and academic institutions contribute to the foreign policy discourse in Pakistan through research, analysis, and advocacy.

Consultations and dialogues are organized with representatives from civil society, academia, and think tanks to solicit input on foreign policy issues, gather expertise, and promote public engagement.

Track II diplomacy initiatives, involving unofficial dialogues and exchanges between non-governmental actors from Pakistan and other countries, provide alternative channels for dialogue and consultation on sensitive diplomatic issues.

Business and Trade Associations:

Business and trade associations play a role in Pakistan’s foreign policy by representing the interests of the private sector and promoting economic diplomacy.

Consultations are held with business leaders, industry associations, and chambers of commerce to discuss trade policies, investment opportunities, and market access issues.

Business delegations and trade missions are organized to explore new markets, attract foreign investment, and strengthen economic ties with other countries.

Public Diplomacy and Media Engagement:

Public diplomacy initiatives, including cultural exchanges, media outreach, and public diplomacy campaigns, aim to engage the public and promote understanding of Pakistan’s foreign policy objectives.

Consultations with media outlets, journalists, and opinion-makers help shape public opinion, influence public discourse on foreign policy issues, and convey government messaging to domestic and international audiences.

Social media platforms and digital communication channels are increasingly utilized to engage stakeholders, solicit feedback, and foster dialogue on foreign policy matters.

5.Implementation and Evaluation:

Execution of Policy Directives:

After foreign policy decisions are made, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and other relevant government agencies are responsible for implementing them.

Diplomatic missions abroad carry out instructions from the central government, engaging with foreign governments, international organizations, and other stakeholders to advance Pakistan’s interests.

The implementation process involves conducting negotiations, signing agreements, representing Pakistan’s positions in international forums, and addressing diplomatic challenges as they arise.

Monitoring and Assessment:

The implementation of foreign policy initiatives is monitored and assessed to evaluate their effectiveness and impact.

Government agencies, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and relevant ministries, collect data, analyze trends, and assess outcomes to determine whether policy objectives are being achieved.

Performance indicators, benchmarks, and targets may be established to measure progress and evaluate the success of foreign policy initiatives.

Diplomatic Reporting and Feedback:

Diplomatic missions abroad provide regular reports and updates to the central government on their activities, achievements, and challenges.

Ambassadors and diplomatic staff communicate feedback, insights, and recommendations to policymakers in Islamabad, informing future decision-making and adjustments to foreign policy strategies.

Feedback from diplomatic missions, including assessments of the political, economic, and security situation in host countries, helps policymakers understand evolving trends and dynamics in the international arena.

Adaptation and Adjustment:

Based on the evaluation of policy outcomes and feedback from stakeholders, adjustments and adaptations may be made to foreign policy strategies and priorities.

Policy directives may be revised, new initiatives may be launched, or existing approaches may be modified to better align with changing circumstances and emerging challenges.

Flexibility and responsiveness are essential qualities of effective foreign policy implementation, allowing the government to adapt to evolving geopolitical realities and pursue national interests effectively.

Accountability and Transparency:

The implementation and evaluation of foreign policy initiatives are subject to accountability mechanisms to ensure transparency and oversight.

Parliamentary committees, including the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs, may review the government’s foreign policy performance, hold hearings, and demand accountability from relevant officials.

Transparency in decision-making processes, public disclosure of relevant information, and responsiveness to public inquiries help build trust and confidence in Pakistan’s foreign policy objectives and outcome

(a)Global Civil Society

1.Scope and Diversity:

Scope and Diversity of Global Civil Society:

Overview of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs):

Examination of the wide-ranging activities and areas of focus of NGOs within global civil society.

Discussion of the diversity of NGOs, including humanitarian, development, advocacy, and rights-based organizations.

Advocacy Groups and Social Movements:

Exploration of advocacy groups and social movements that operate at the global level to address specific issues such as climate change, gender equality, and peacebuilding.

Analysis of the diverse tactics and strategies employed by these groups to influence policy and promote social change.

Grassroots Organizations and Community Initiatives:

Discussion of grassroots organizations and community-based initiatives that form the foundation of global civil society.

Examination of how these organizations address local issues with global implications, promoting bottom-up approaches to social and environmental justice.

Professional Associations and Networks:

Overview of professional associations and networks that bring together individuals and organizations working in specific fields such as health, education, and human rights.

Analysis of the role of these associations in advancing professional standards, facilitating knowledge-sharing, and promoting collaboration.

Cultural and Artistic Movements:

Exploration of cultural and artistic movements that contribute to global civil society through creative expression, cultural exchange, and the promotion of cultural diversity.

Examination of how art, music, literature, and film are used as tools for social mobilization, dialogue, and advocacy on global issues.

2.Key Characteristics:


Discussion of how global civil society transcends national boundaries, connecting individuals and organizations across geographic locations.

Analysis of the importance of transnational networks and collaborations in addressing global challenges and promoting solidarity among diverse communities.


Examination of the diversity of voices, perspectives, and interests represented within global civil society.

Analysis of how pluralism fosters inclusivity, dialogue, and collaboration, enriching the discourse and effectiveness of civil society activism.

Networked Structure:

Overview of the interconnectedness and interdependence of organizations and actors within global civil society.

Discussion of how networked structures facilitate information sharing, resource mobilization, and collective action, amplifying the impact of civil society efforts.

Participatory Democracy:

Analysis of the principles of participatory democracy that underpin global civil society, empowering individuals and communities to engage in decision-making processes.

Examination of how participatory approaches promote accountability, transparency, and responsiveness within civil society organizations and movements.

Innovative Approaches:

Exploration of the innovative approaches and strategies employed by global civil society to address complex global challenges.

Analysis of how civil society organizations leverage technology, social media, and grassroots mobilization to amplify their voices, reach new audiences, and effect change.

3.Functions and Activities:

Advocacy and Campaigning:

Discussion of how global civil society organizations engage in advocacy and campaigning to raise awareness about pressing global issues.

Analysis of advocacy efforts aimed at influencing policy decisions, mobilizing public support, and holding governments and corporations accountable.

Capacity Building:

Exploration of capacity-building initiatives undertaken by global civil society organizations to empower local communities, grassroots organizations, and marginalized groups.

Examination of training programs, skill-building workshops, and educational campaigns aimed at strengthening the capacity of individuals and organizations to address social, economic, and environmental challenges.

Service Delivery:

Overview of the role of global civil society organizations in providing humanitarian aid, development assistance, and social services to communities affected by conflict, poverty, and natural disasters.

Discussion of how civil society actors collaborate with governments, international agencies, and local partners to deliver essential services and support to vulnerable populations.

Research and Analysis:

Analysis of the research and analysis conducted by global civil society organizations to generate evidence-based solutions, policy recommendations, and advocacy strategies.

Examination of research reports, policy briefs, and publications produced by civil society actors to inform public discourse, influence policy debates, and shape decision-making processes.

Networking and Collaboration:

Exploration of the networking and collaboration activities undertaken by global civil society organizations to build alliances, coalitions, and partnerships.

Discussion of how civil society actors leverage networks, platforms, and forums to share information, coordinate actions, and amplify their impact on global issues.

4.Impact and Influence:

Policy Change:

Analysis of the role of global civil society in influencing policy change at the local, national, and international levels.

Examination of advocacy efforts that have led to the adoption of new laws, regulations, and policies addressing issues such as human rights, environmental protection, and social justice.

Normative Change:

Discussion of how global civil society contributes to normative change by challenging existing power structures, social norms, and cultural practices.

Analysis of advocacy campaigns that promote alternative narratives, values, and ethical frameworks, leading to shifts in societal attitudes and behaviors.

Mobilization and Awareness:

Exploration of the role of global civil society in mobilizing public support and raising awareness about pressing global issues.

Examination of grassroots movements, social media campaigns, and mass mobilization efforts that engage individuals and communities in collective action and advocacy.

Promotion of Social Change:

Analysis of the broader impact of global civil society in promoting social change and transformation.

Examination of how civil society activism contributes to shifts in power dynamics, institutional reforms, and structural changes that address root causes of inequality, injustice, and oppression.

Global Governance and Accountability:

Discussion of how global civil society contributes to strengthening global governance mechanisms and promoting accountability among governments, corporations, and international institutions.

Analysis of civil society engagement in international forums, monitoring mechanisms, and advocacy campaigns aimed at ensuring transparency, accountability, and respect for human rights on the global stage.

5.Challenges and Constraints:

Resource Constraints:

Discussion of the financial and resource limitations faced by many civil society organizations, including funding shortages, limited access to resources, and dependence on donor funding.

Analysis of the impact of resource constraints on the sustainability, capacity, and effectiveness of civil society activism.

Political Repression:

Examination of the challenges posed by political repression, censorship, and restrictions on freedom of expression, association, and assembly.

Discussion of how authoritarian regimes and governments hostile to civil society activism suppress dissent, target human rights defenders, and undermine civil society organizations’ ability to operate freely.

Co-optation and Instrumentalization:

Analysis of the risks of co-optation and instrumentalization faced by civil society organizations, including manipulation by governments, corporations, and powerful interest groups.

Examination of instances where civil society actors are co-opted into supporting government agendas or used as tools for political or corporate interests, compromising their independence and integrity.

Security Risks and Threats:

Discussion of the security risks and threats faced by civil society activists, including harassment, intimidation, violence, and targeted attacks.

Analysis of the challenges posed by conflict, instability, and humanitarian crises in regions where civil society organizations operate, jeopardizing the safety and security of staff and beneficiaries.

Legal and Regulatory Barriers:

Examination of the legal and regulatory barriers that hinder civil society activism, including restrictive laws, regulations, and bureaucratic hurdles.

Discussion of how laws targeting civil society organizations, such as restrictive registration requirements, funding restrictions, and surveillance measures, impede their ability to operate effectively and independently.

Fragmentation and Division:

Analysis of the challenges stemming from fragmentation, competition, and lack of coordination within the civil society sector.

Discussion of how internal divisions, conflicting agendas, and competition for resources among civil society organizations weaken collective action and diminish the impact of advocacy efforts.

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