CSSPakistan Affairs

Q3. Having the largest irrigation system in the world, the land of the sub-continent served as the main food supply basket for the British power for more than a century, but now Pakistan has to import food commodities. Discuss in detail the causes of this agricultural decline. 2023

Pakistan is an agrarian country that has been blessed with fertile land and a robust irrigation system. However, despite having the largest irrigation system in the world, Pakistan has been facing an agricultural decline in recent years, which has resulted in the country’s increased reliance on food imports. The causes of this decline are numerous and complex, and we will discuss some of the most significant factors in detail below:

  1. Water scarcity: Pakistan’s agricultural sector relies heavily on irrigation water from the Indus River system. However, due to climate change, the country has been experiencing frequent droughts and erratic rainfall patterns, leading to water scarcity. This has resulted in a decline in agricultural productivity, as farmers struggle to irrigate their crops adequately.
  2. Soil degradation: The intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, coupled with the absence of proper soil conservation practices, has led to soil degradation. The excessive use of these chemicals has reduced soil fertility, and the absence of proper soil conservation practices has resulted in soil erosion, which has further reduced the productivity of the land.
  3. Land fragmentation: The traditional system of land inheritance in Pakistan has led to the fragmentation of land holdings, resulting in smaller and less productive farms. As a result, farmers are unable to make the necessary investments to improve productivity, leading to a decline in agricultural output.
  4. Lack of modernization: The Pakistani agricultural sector has not kept pace with modern agricultural practices and technologies. Farmers continue to rely on traditional methods and outdated machinery, which has reduced their efficiency and productivity.
  5. Energy crisis: The energy crisis in Pakistan has also affected the agricultural sector. Power outages have resulted in reduced access to water for irrigation, and farmers are unable to use modern machinery due to a lack of electricity.
  6. Lack of government support: The government has not provided adequate support to the agricultural sector. The lack of investment in research and development, inadequate infrastructure, and limited access to credit have all contributed to the decline in agricultural productivity.
  7. Climate change: The impacts of climate change, including extreme weather events and changes in temperature and rainfall patterns, have also negatively affected agricultural productivity in Pakistan.

In conclusion, the decline in agricultural productivity in Pakistan is a complex problem that requires a multifaceted solution. Addressing issues such as water scarcity, soil degradation, land fragmentation, lack of modernization, the energy crisis, lack of government support, and climate change are all critical to improving agricultural productivity in Pakistan. The government, farmers, and private sector must work together to implement sustainable solutions that improve productivity and ensure food security for the country.


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