XI. Changing Security Dynamics for Pakistan: Challenges to National Securityof


Pakistan faces several challenges to its national security. One of the most significant challenges is the ongoing conflict in neighboring Afghanistan and its potential spillover effects. Pakistan shares a long and porous border with Afghanistan, which has led to the influx of refugees, cross-border terrorism, and drug trafficking.

Another major challenge to Pakistan’s national security is its tense relationship with India, particularly over the disputed territory of Kashmir. The two countries have fought multiple wars over Kashmir, and the issue remains unresolved. The frequent ceasefire violations and skirmishes along the Line of Control also add to the security challenges for Pakistan.

Pakistan also faces internal security threats, including terrorism, sectarian violence, and separatist movements in Balochistan and Sindh. These threats have been exacerbated by the influx of Afghan refugees and the presence of extremist groups operating within the country.

In addition to these traditional security threats, Pakistan is also facing non-traditional security threats, such as climate change, water scarcity, and cyber threats. Climate change is causing extreme weather events, including floods and droughts, which have a severe impact on the country’s economy and social fabric. Water scarcity is also a significant challenge, particularly in the context of the ongoing water dispute with India.

Pakistan’s role in the region is critical, given its strategic location at the crossroads of Central Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East. Pakistan has played an important role in facilitating the peace process in Afghanistan, and it has also been an active member of regional organizations such as SAARC, ECO, and SCO. However, Pakistan’s relationship with the United States and other Western countries has been strained in recent years, particularly over issues related to counterterrorism and nuclear proliferation.

Overall, Pakistan’s national security challenges are complex and multifaceted, requiring a comprehensive and coordinated approach to address them effectively.

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