CSSInternational Relations-II

Q4. Write a detailed note on evolving domestic political dynamics of Afghanistan in the wake of the US withdrawal from the country. Discuss key constraints to Pakistan’s foreign policy towards Afghanistan. 2023

The withdrawal of US forces from Afghanistan has had a significant impact on the country’s domestic political dynamics. Since the US-led invasion in 2001, Afghanistan has been in a state of conflict, with a number of different actors vying for power and influence. With the withdrawal of US troops, the security situation in the country has become more uncertain, and the risk of renewed conflict has increased.

One key challenge facing Afghanistan’s domestic politics is the threat posed by the Taliban, which has been regaining strength in recent years. The Taliban has been engaging in a campaign of violence and intimidation aimed at weakening the Afghan government and establishing its own control over parts of the country.

Another challenge is the issue of political power-sharing, which has been a contentious issue in Afghanistan for many years. Despite attempts to establish a power-sharing government after the fall of the Taliban in 2001, the country has struggled to establish a stable and effective government that is representative of the diverse interests of its people.

At the same time, the Afghan government has also been facing challenges from other political actors, including opposition groups, ethnic factions, and regional warlords, who have their own interests and agendas. These actors have sought to gain control over the country’s resources, institutions, and political processes, and their actions have often been at odds with the goals and interests of the government.

In terms of Pakistan’s foreign policy towards Afghanistan, a number of key constraints are impacting its ability to effectively engage with its neighbor. One of the primary challenges is the distrust and tensions between the two countries, which have a long history of conflict and instability. This distrust has been fueled by a number of factors, including allegations of Pakistani support for the Taliban, territorial disputes, and competing strategic interests.

Another constraint is the complex regional politics of the region, including the influence of other regional actors, such as Iran and India, who have their own interests and goals in Afghanistan. This has made it difficult for Pakistan to pursue a consistent and coherent foreign policy towards Afghanistan.

Finally, domestic politics in Pakistan, including the military’s role in foreign policy, has also been a constraint on its ability to effectively engage with Afghanistan. Political instability and security challenges, including the threat of terrorism, have limited the government’s ability to pursue a robust foreign policy, and have often forced it to prioritize other priorities over its engagement with Afghanistan.

In conclusion, the withdrawal of US forces from Afghanistan has had a significant impact on the country’s domestic political dynamics, and has created new challenges for both Afghanistan and Pakistan. Addressing these challenges will require a complex and nuanced approach, involving both countries working together, and engaging with regional actors, to promote peace, stability, and prosperity in the region.

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