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(3) Early Islamic History upto Khulfa-e-Rashideen

The early Islamic history refers to the period of Islam from its inception in the early 7th century until the death of the fourth caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib, in 661 CE. This period is often referred to as the “Rashidun Caliphate,” which means “the rightly guided caliphs.”

Islam began in the Arabian Peninsula in the early 7th century when the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) received the first revelation of the Quran from Allah through the angel Gabriel. Over the next 23 years, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) continued to receive revelations and to preach the message of Islam to the people of Mecca and Medina.

In 622 CE, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in what is known as the “Hijra.” This migration marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.

In Medina, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) established the first Islamic state, which was based on the principles of justice, equality, and brotherhood. He was the political and religious leader of the state, and he established a constitution that ensured the rights of all citizens, regardless of their religion or ethnicity.

After the death of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in 632 CE, his companions elected Abu Bakr as the first caliph or leader of the Muslim community. Abu Bakr’s reign was marked by a series of wars, known as the “Ridda Wars,” against Arab tribes who had rebelled against Muslim rule.

After Abu Bakr’s death in 634 CE, he was succeeded by Umar ibn al-Khattab as the second caliph. During Umar’s reign, the Muslim empire expanded rapidly, with the conquest of the Persian and Byzantine empires.

Umar was succeeded by Uthman ibn Affan as the third caliph in 644 CE. Uthman’s reign was marked by internal dissent, which eventually led to his assassination in 656 CE.

Ali ibn Abi Talib, the cousin and son-in-law of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), was elected as the fourth caliph in 656 CE. His reign was marked by a series of conflicts, including the first civil war in Islamic history, known as the “Fitna.”

Ali was eventually assassinated in 661 CE, which marked the end of the Rashidun Caliphate. The period of the Khulfa-e-Rashideen, or the “rightly guided caliphs,” is widely regarded as a golden age of Islamic history, characterized by the spread of Islam, justice, and prosperity.

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