C. Pakistan and the changing regional scenario.

Pakistan has been navigating a rapidly changing regional scenario, with a range of political, economic, and security challenges impacting the country’s foreign policy and strategic calculus. Here are some key developments that have shaped Pakistan’s regional outlook in recent years:

  1. Rise of China: Pakistan has deepened its ties with China in recent years, with the two countries collaborating on a range of economic and infrastructure projects as part of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). This has brought significant economic benefits to Pakistan, but has also raised concerns about debt sustainability and strategic implications for the region.
  2. Evolving relations with the US: Pakistan’s relationship with the United States has been marked by both cooperation and tension, with disagreements over counterterrorism policy and Afghanistan being a major source of friction. The US has also put pressure on Pakistan to crack down on extremist groups operating within its borders, which has strained bilateral ties.
  3. Shifts in regional power dynamics: Pakistan has been impacted by changing power dynamics in the region, including the rise of India as a regional power and the growing influence of China. Pakistan has sought to balance its relationships with both countries, while also maintaining its traditional ties with the Gulf states and other regional actors.
  4. Regional security challenges: Pakistan continues to face significant security challenges, including terrorism and insurgency in its western provinces and cross-border tensions with India. The situation in neighboring Afghanistan has also had an impact on Pakistan’s security, with concerns about the potential spillover of violence and the role of militant groups operating in the region.

In response to these challenges, Pakistan has pursued a range of foreign policy initiatives aimed at promoting regional stability and economic development. This has included deepening ties with China, engaging in regional organizations such as SAARC and ECO, and seeking to improve relations with neighboring countries such as India and Afghanistan. However, the changing regional scenario continues to pose significant challenges for Pakistan, and its ability to navigate these challenges will be a key factor in shaping its strategic outlook in the years to come.

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