PMS

COMPARATIVE POLITICS

PAPER – II Total Marks: 100

Taking contemporary state as a dynamic phenomenon, having its own system structures and assigned functions, a comparative analysis of some outstanding developed and developing state systems is made here. The emphasis is equally on Pakistan as an emerging political system of the world.

Comparative analysis of different state systems can provide valuable insights into the functioning of contemporary states. Here, we will briefly discuss some outstanding developed and developing state systems, with an emphasis on Pakistan as an emerging political system.

Developed State Systems:

  1. United States of America: The US is a federal presidential system, with power divided between the central government and the states. The executive branch is led by a president, who is directly elected by the people.
  2. United Kingdom: The UK is a parliamentary system, with power concentrated in the hands of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The monarch is the nominal head of state, but has limited powers.
  3. Germany: Germany is a federal parliamentary system, with power divided between the central government and the states. The Chancellor is the head of government and is elected by the Bundestag, the federal parliament.

Developing State Systems:

  1. Brazil: Brazil is a federal presidential system, with power divided between the central government and the states. The President is the head of government and is directly elected by the people.
  2. India: India is a federal parliamentary system, with power divided between the central government and the states. The Prime Minister is the head of government and is elected by the Lok Sabha, the lower house of parliament.
  3. Pakistan: Pakistan is a federal parliamentary system, with power divided between the central government and the provinces. The Prime Minister is the head of government and is elected by the National Assembly, the lower house of parliament.

Pakistan’s Political System:

Pakistan is an emerging political system that has undergone significant changes in recent years. The country’s political system is characterized by a federal parliamentary system, with power divided between the central government and the provinces. The National Assembly, the lower house of parliament, is responsible for electing the Prime Minister, who is the head of government. The President is the nominal head of state and is elected by an electoral college.

Pakistan’s political system has been marked by a number of challenges, including political instability, corruption, and weak democratic institutions. However, recent efforts to strengthen democratic institutions and improve governance have shown some positive results. The country has seen a significant increase in political participation and a growing recognition of the importance of democratic values and institutions.

In conclusion, comparative analysis of different state systems can provide valuable insights into the functioning of contemporary states. Pakistan’s political system is an emerging system that faces a number of challenges, but recent efforts to strengthen democratic institutions and improve governance offer hope for a more stable and democratic future.

PART: A Political Systems

Concept of Political System: i) Easton on Behaviorism ii) Almond on Functionalism

The concept of political system is an important aspect of political science, and different scholars have approached it from different theoretical perspectives. Here, we will discuss two important perspectives on the concept of political system: Easton’s behaviorism and Almond’s functionalism.

  1. Easton on Behaviorism:

David Easton was a prominent political scientist who developed the behavioral approach to the study of politics. According to Easton, a political system is a set of interactions through which social actors make authoritative decisions. Easton emphasized the importance of understanding the behavior of individual actors in a political system, rather than focusing solely on the formal structures of government.

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Easton’s approach to the concept of political system emphasizes the role of feedback in political decision-making. According to Easton, feedback is the process through which information about the consequences of political decisions is communicated to decision-makers. This feedback allows decision-makers to adjust their policies and actions in response to changing circumstances.

  • Almond on Functionalism:

Gabriel Almond was another influential political scientist who developed the functionalist approach to the study of politics. According to Almond, a political system is a set of institutions and procedures that perform the functions necessary for the maintenance of social order and the resolution of conflicts.

Almond’s approach to the concept of political system emphasizes the importance of understanding the functions performed by political institutions. According to Almond, political systems can be analyzed in terms of their inputs, outputs, and feedback mechanisms. Inputs refer to the demands and expectations placed on the political system by society. Outputs refer to the policies and decisions produced by the political system in response to these demands. Feedback mechanisms refer to the ways in which society evaluates and responds to the outputs of the political system.

In conclusion, Easton’s behaviorism and Almond’s functionalism are two important perspectives on the concept of political system. Easton emphasizes the importance of understanding the behavior of individual actors in a political system, while Almond emphasizes the importance of understanding the functions performed by political institutions. Both perspectives provide valuable insights into the study of political systems and help us to better understand the complex dynamics of political decision-making.

9. Developed Political Systems: Main constitutional features of USA, UK, France and former USSR

The constitutional features of developed political systems can vary widely depending on the specific country and its historical and cultural context. Here, we will briefly discuss the main constitutional features of the United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), France, and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

  1. United States of America:

The US has a federal system of government, with power divided between the national government and the state governments. The US Constitution serves as the supreme law of the land, and outlines the basic structure of the government and the rights of its citizens. The Constitution establishes a system of checks and balances, with separate branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) that have the power to check and balance each other’s authority. The President serves as the head of the executive branch and is responsible for implementing the laws passed by Congress.

  • United Kingdom:

The UK has a parliamentary system of government, with power concentrated in the hands of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The UK does not have a written constitution, but instead relies on a set of constitutional conventions and statutes. The monarch serves as the nominal head of state, but has limited powers. The House of Commons serves as the lower house of parliament, while the House of Lords serves as the upper house.

  • France:

France has a semi-presidential system of government, with power divided between the President and the Prime Minister. The French Constitution outlines the basic structure of the government and the rights of its citizens. The President serves as the head of state and is responsible for foreign policy and national defense, while the Prime Minister serves as the head of government and is responsible for domestic policy.

  • Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR):

The USSR had a socialist system of government, with power concentrated in the hands of the Communist Party. The Soviet Constitution served as the supreme law of the land and outlined the basic structure of the government and the rights of its citizens. The government was divided into two branches: the legislative branch (Supreme Soviet) and the executive branch (Council of Ministers). The Communist Party exercised significant control over the government and the economy.

In conclusion, the constitutional features of developed political systems can vary widely depending on the specific country and its historical and cultural context. The USA, UK, France, and former USSR each have unique constitutional arrangements that reflect their respective political histories and traditions.

10. Developing Political Systems: Main constitutional features of Turkey, India and China.

The constitutional features of developing political systems can vary widely depending on the specific country and its historical and cultural context. Here, we will briefly discuss the main constitutional features of Turkey, India, and China.

  1. Turkey:

Turkey has a parliamentary system of government, with power concentrated in the hands of the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The Turkish Constitution serves as the supreme law of the land, and outlines the basic structure of the government and the rights of its citizens. The President serves as the head of state, but has limited powers. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey serves as the legislative branch of government.

  • India:

India has a federal system of government, with power divided between the national government and the state governments. The Indian Constitution serves as the supreme law of the land, and outlines the basic structure of the government and the rights of its citizens. The President serves as the head of state, while the Prime Minister serves as the head of government. The Indian parliament consists of two houses: the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People).

  • China:

China has a socialist system of government, with power concentrated in the hands of the Communist Party. The Chinese Constitution serves as the supreme law of the land, and outlines the basic structure of the government and the rights of its citizens. The President serves as the head of state, while the Premier serves as the head of government. The National People’s Congress serves as the legislative branch of government.

In conclusion, the constitutional features of developing political systems can vary widely depending on the specific country and its historical and cultural context. Turkey, India, and China each have unique constitutional arrangements that reflect their respective political histories and traditions.

PART: B Pakistan

11. Pakistan as a Nation-State: Rise of Muslim Nationalism in South Asia under the dynamic leaderships of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

The rise of Muslim nationalism in South Asia was a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, driven by a combination of political, social, and economic factors. Three prominent figures who played a key role in this process were Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Allama Iqbal, and Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah.

  1. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan:

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was a leading figure in the Muslim community of India during the 19th century. He believed that Muslims needed to modernize and adapt to the changing political and social circumstances of colonial India. He founded the Aligarh Muslim University in 1875, which became a center of Muslim learning and cultural revival. Sir Syed emphasized the importance of education and advocated for Muslim political representation within the British colonial system.

  • Allama Iqbal:

Allama Iqbal was a prominent poet, philosopher, and politician who played a significant role in the development of Muslim nationalism in South Asia. He believed that Muslims needed to create a separate homeland for themselves in order to preserve their cultural and religious identity. Iqbal’s famous speech at the Allahabad session of the All India Muslim League in 1930, in which he proposed the creation of a separate Muslim state, is considered a defining moment in the history of Muslim nationalism in South Asia.

  • Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah:

Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was the founder of Pakistan and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of South Asia. Jinnah was a skilled lawyer and politician who led the All India Muslim League in its campaign for the creation of a separate Muslim state. He was a strong advocate for the rights of Muslims in India and believed that a separate homeland was necessary to ensure their political and cultural survival. Jinnah negotiated with the British colonial authorities and the Indian National Congress to secure the creation of Pakistan in 1947.

In conclusion, the rise of Muslim nationalism in South Asia was a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that was driven by a combination of political, social, and economic factors. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Allama Iqbal, and Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah were three prominent figures who played a key role in this process and are considered important leaders in the history of Pakistan.

12. Political System of Pakistan:   Comparative and critical analysis of the Constitutions of 1956, 1962 and 1973 (with amendments)

Pakistan has had a tumultuous political history since its independence in 1947, and has experienced several changes in its constitutional framework over the years. A comparative and critical analysis of the Constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973 (with amendments) can provide insights into the evolution of Pakistan’s political system.

  1. Constitution of 1956:

The Constitution of 1956 was Pakistan’s first constitution, adopted on March 23, 1956. It established Pakistan as an Islamic Republic, with a parliamentary system of government. The constitution provided for a federal structure, with two chambers of parliament – the National Assembly and the Senate. The president was the head of state, and the prime minister was the head of government. However, the constitution was short-lived, and was abrogated in 1958 when General Ayub Khan seized power in a military coup.

  • Constitution of 1962:

The Constitution of 1962 was promulgated by General Ayub Khan, and introduced a presidential system of government with a unicameral legislature. The president had wide-ranging powers, including the ability to dissolve the National Assembly and appoint the prime minister. The constitution also introduced the concept of Basic Democracies, which provided for the direct election of local government officials. However, the constitution was widely criticized for being undemocratic and authoritarian, and was replaced in 1972.

  • Constitution of 1973:

The Constitution of 1973 was adopted on April 12, 1973, and is the current constitution of Pakistan (with amendments). It provides for a federal parliamentary system of government, with a bicameral legislature consisting of the National Assembly and the Senate. The president is the head of state, while the prime minister is the head of government. The constitution also recognizes Islam as the state religion, and provides for fundamental rights, including freedom of speech, religion, and assembly.

However, the Constitution of 1973 has been amended several times over the years, which has raised concerns about its effectiveness in providing a stable and democratic political system. Some of the key amendments include the 8th Amendment, which gave the president the power to dissolve the National Assembly, and the 18th Amendment, which transferred some of the president’s powers to the prime minister and made other changes to the constitution.

In conclusion, a comparative and critical analysis of the Constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973 (with amendments) highlights the evolution of Pakistan’s political system over the years, and the challenges it has faced in establishing a stable and democratic political framework. The Constitution of 1973 provides the basic structure for Pakistan’s political system, but ongoing constitutional amendments and political instability have raised concerns about its effectiveness.

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