O. Situation in Afghanistan since 1979 and its impact on Pakistan.

The situation in Afghanistan since 1979 has had a significant impact on Pakistan, with the country being directly affected by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the rise of the Taliban, and the ongoing conflict in the country.

In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, sparking a decade-long war that resulted in the displacement of millions of Afghan refugees into Pakistan. Pakistan provided refuge and support to these refugees, but the influx had a significant impact on the country’s economy and social fabric.

Following the Soviet withdrawal in 1989, Afghanistan descended into a civil war, with various factions fighting for control of the country. During this period, Pakistan supported the Taliban, a militant group that emerged in Afghanistan in the mid-1990s and eventually took control of the country in 1996. The Taliban provided a safe haven for militant groups, including Al-Qaeda, which launched attacks on the United States in 2001.

After the US-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, the Taliban were ousted from power, and Afghanistan was placed under the control of a Western-backed government. However, the conflict has continued, with the Taliban regaining control of significant portions of the country in recent years.

The ongoing conflict in Afghanistan has had a significant impact on Pakistan, with the country facing security challenges and economic disruptions as a result of the conflict. Pakistan has also been accused of supporting the Taliban, which has strained its relationship with the United States and other Western countries.

In recent years, Pakistan has played a key role in facilitating peace talks between the Taliban and the Afghan government. However, the situation in Afghanistan remains complex and uncertain, with ongoing violence and political instability continuing to impact the region as a whole.

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