Past Papers PMSPMS

Q2. Discuss in detail the social set-up of Islam and give examples from the period of Khulafa-e-Rashideen in this respect.

Certainly! Islam encompasses a comprehensive social set-up that addresses various aspects of human interaction, community life, and societal organization. This social framework promotes principles of equality, justice, compassion, and cooperation, aiming to establish a just and harmonious society. A prime example of the application of these principles can be observed during the period of the Khulafa-e-Rashideen, the rightly guided caliphs who succeeded Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Let’s delve into the social set-up of Islam and explore some examples from that era.

1. Equality:

Islam promotes equality among individuals, irrespective of their social status, race, or ethnicity. During the reign of the Khulafa-e-Rashideen, this principle was firmly upheld. For instance, Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab (RA) implemented policies that ensured fair distribution of wealth and resources. He established a welfare system where the needs of the poor and vulnerable were met, exemplifying the importance of social justice and equality in society.

2. Justice:

Islam places great emphasis on justice, both in legal matters and in interpersonal relationships. The Khulafa-e-Rashideen were known for their just rulings and adherence to Islamic law. Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib (RA), for instance, was renowned for his commitment to justice and fair judgment. His decisions were based on principles of equity, ensuring that the rights of all individuals were protected, regardless of their position or influence.

3. Consultation (Shura):

Islam encourages consultation and collective decision-making within the community. The Khulafa-e-Rashideen actively sought counsel from their companions and respected scholars before making important decisions. Caliph Abu Bakr (RA) and Caliph Umar (RA) would often consult with prominent companions, seeking their opinions and advice. This practice fostered a sense of inclusivity and participation among the members of society.

4. Social Welfare:

Islam emphasizes the importance of caring for the less fortunate and fostering a sense of community responsibility. During the time of the Khulafa-e-Rashideen, the concept of social welfare was deeply ingrained. Caliph Umar (RA) introduced various initiatives to support the needy, including a state treasury (Bayt al-Mal) that provided financial aid, pensions, and stipends to widows, orphans, and the destitute. This proactive approach to social welfare demonstrated the Islamic emphasis on collective responsibility and compassion.

5. Religious Tolerance:

Islam promotes religious tolerance and coexistence. The Khulafa-e-Rashideen exemplified this principle by ensuring the protection of religious minorities. During their rule, non-Muslims were allowed to practice their faith freely, and their places of worship were safeguarded. Caliph Umar (RA) is particularly known for his commitment to religious tolerance, as seen in the Treaty of Jerusalem, which guaranteed the rights and safety of Christians in the region.


6. Women’s Rights:

Islam grants women fundamental rights and recognizes their essential role in society. During the time of the Khulafa-e-Rashideen, women actively participated in various aspects of community life. For instance, women were engaged in commerce, education, and even held positions of influence and leadership. Caliph Umar (RA) introduced reforms to protect women’s rights, such as the establishment of the dowry system, which aimed to ensure financial security for women.

In summary, the social set-up of Islam encompasses principles of equality, justice, consultation, social welfare, religious tolerance, and women’s rights. The era of the Khulafa-e-Rashideen provides exemplary instances where these principles were practiced and upheld. Their leadership demonstrated the practical implementation of Islamic values, fostering a just and inclusive society where individuals’ rights were protected, and social welfare

 was prioritized. These principles continue to serve as a guide for Muslims today, promoting a cohesive and compassionate social order.

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